The preference for the eating of the leaves led to the selection of plants with larger leaves being harvested and their seeds planted for the next growth. In a 100 g (3 1⁄2 oz) serving, raw kale provides 207 kilojoules (49 kilocalories) of food energy and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value (DV) (table). The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, which included J. M. Barrie (creator of Peter Pan), consisted of authors who wrote about traditional rural Scottish life (kailyard = 'kale field'). Bitter taste receptors in the TS2R family are also found in gut mucosal and pancreatic cells in humans and rodents. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague (in press), Lustinec J, Kaminek K, Privratsky J (1972) Increase in dry weight and protein content in, Lustinec J, Hadacovä V, Kaminek M (1974) The effect of various cytokinins and auxins on starch formation in kale and tobacco explants. sabellica L. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Kale originated in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, where it was cultivated for food beginning by 2000 BCE at the latest. It is not well adapted to hot weather. , Russian kale was introduced into Canada, and then into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century. , In Northern Germany, there is a winter tradition known as "Kohlfahrt" ("kale trip"), where a group of people will go on a hike through the woods during the day before gathering at an inn where kale is served, usually with bacon and Kohlwurst ("kale sausage"). Without the doubt, a scientific evidences support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The earliest record of cabbages in western Europe is of hard-heading cabbage in the 13th century.  Kai-lan or Chinese kale is a cultivar often used in Chinese cuisine. USDA, Washington, DC, Xu ZH, Davey MR, Cocking EC (1982) Plant regeneration from root protoplasts of, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73520-2_30, Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Best quality is produced where summers are cool or when it is grown into the fall or winter. Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, and K, and manganese remain substantial (see table "Kale, cooked"). Epub 2013 Dec 13. Biol Plant 27:281–285, McDonald RC, Manley TR, Barry TN, Forss DA, Sinclair AG (1981) Nutritional evaluation of kale, McNaughton IH, Ross CL (1978) Inter-specific and inter-generic hybridization in the Brassicaceae with special emphasis on the improvment of forage crops. In, "America's First "Food Spy" Traveled the World Hunting for Exotic Crops", "Meet the Man Who Found, Finagled, and Ferried Home the Foods We Eat Today", "Land army: Alan Titchmarsh on how gardening became essential for survival during wartime", Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: Vol. Kale is a good source (10–19% DV) of thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus (see table "Kale, raw"). This group includes a number of species, both wild and cultivated, many of which are grown for their edible leaves and flowers. These are included within the species Brassica oleracea, such as Kale (Brassica oleracea var. In, "America's First "Food Spy" Traveled the World Hunting for Exotic Crops", "Meet the Man Who Found, Finagled, and Ferried Home the Foods We Eat Today", "Land army: Alan Titchmarsh on how gardening became essential for survival during wartime", Cyclopedia of American Agriculture: Vol.  Kale is high in oxalic acid, the levels of which can be reduced by cooking. , In the Netherlands, a traditional winter dish called "boerenkoolstamppot" is a mix of curly kale and mashed potatoes, sometimes with fried bacon, and served with rookworst ("smoked sausage"). Oft bläulich bereifte, kahle oder borstig behaarte, 1–2jährige Kräuter, seltener Stauden, mit häufig leierförmigen bis fiederspaltigen (vorwiegend unten) oder ungeteilten (überwiegend oben) Blättern und überwiegend gelben Blüten in traubigen oder rispigen Blütenständen. USA.gov.  USDA botanist David Fairchild is credited with introducing kale (and many other crops) to Americans, having brought it back from Croatia, although Fairchild himself disliked cabbages, including kale. Planta 149:112–117, Glimelius K (1984) High growth rate and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl protoplasts in some Brassicaceae. Unable to display preview. The name literally means "without a head" in contrast to those varieties known as capitata or "with a head". , Flavored "kale chips" have been produced as a potato chip substitute. Can J Plant Sei 52:787–793, Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1986) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. , In Northern Germany, there is a winter tradition known as "Kohlfahrt" ("kale trip"), where a group of people will go on a hike through the woods during the day before gathering at an inn where kale is served, usually with bacon and Kohlwurst ("kale sausage").  As with broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, kale contains glucosinolate compounds, such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health. 2018 Dec 18;9:1859. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01859. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. In Ireland, kale is mixed with mashed potatoes to make the traditional dish colcannon. acephala) raw and cooked.  Kale can become sweeter after a heavy frost.. , Kale is usually an annual plant grown from seed with a wide range of germination temperatures. Physiol Plant 61:38–44, Helm J (1963) Morphologisch-taxonomische Gliederung der Kultursippen von, Horäk J (1972) Ploidy chimeras in plants regenerated from the tissue culture of, Horäk J, Landa Z, Lustinec J (1971) Production of polyploid plants from tissue cultures of, Horäk J, Lustinec J, Mesicek J, Kaminek M, Poläckovä D (1975) Regeneration of diploid and polyploid plants from the stem explants of diploid marrow stem kale, Johnston TD (1980) Forage brassica breeding at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station 1955–1980. has these groups: Napobrassica Group / Pabularia Group / Acephala Group / Alboglabra Group / Botrytis Group / Capitata Group / Gemmifera Group / Gongylodes Group / Italica Group / Tronchuda Group / Chinensis Group / Japonica Group / Pekinensis Group / Perviridis Group / Rapifera Group, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew has eight groups: Acephala Group (kale, borecole, collards) / Alboglabra Group (Chinese kale, Chinese broccoli, gai lan, kai lan) / Botrytis Group (broccoli, cauliflower, broccoflower, calabrese) / Capitata Group (cabbage, Savoy cabbage, red cabbage) / Gemmifera Group (sprouts, Brussels sprouts) / Gongylodes Group (kohlrabi, knol-kohl) / Italica Group (purple sprouting, sprouting broccoli) / Tronchuda Group (Portuguese cabbage, seakale cabbage), The Acephala group of cultivars or variety for the species Brassica oleracea includes:, Acephala means "no head" as the plants have leaves with no central head; the opposite arrangement of white cabbage, or Savoy cabbage.