The Russian Civil Code is the “constitution” of the market economy, and is special in the hierarchy of codes, since it will supplant contradictory text in other codes. The laws were in force until the February Revolution of 1917. Nicholas II issued Russia's new constitution (in the form of the Fundamental Laws), 23 April 1906. In 2010 the Council of Europe recommended that: “Taking into account that the child’s best interests should be the primary consideration in decisions regarding the parental responsibility for, or guardianship of a child, member states should ensure that such decisions are taken without discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.” The European Court of Human Rights is currently considering a case of a Russian trans woman who has been barred from visiting her children. This section does not cite any sources. “Further restricting the rights of transgender people in the name of ‘traditional values’ in Russia does nothing but harm a group of vulnerable people.”, Sexual Violence Against Men, Boys, and Transgender Women in the Syrian Conflict, Barriers to the Right to Education for LGBT Youth in Vietnam, Tanzania’s Anti-LGBT Crackdown and the Right to Health, Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice. Fundamental State Laws. The Supreme Court has held that lower courts must evaluate the contents of applicable laws or other normative acts for their conformity to the constitution, and to apply the constitution where they conflict. USSR legislation fills gaps as the new system is being put in place, and is purely transitional until the Russian parliament can add new laws. © 2020 Alexander Koriakov/Kommersant/Sipa via AP Images, Dozens Detained in Russia For Protesting Prosecution of Feminist Activist, Russian Court Rules Transgender Woman’s Firing Unlawful, Man Killed in Homophobic Attack in Moscow Deserves Justice, A New Film Brings Chechnya’s Horrific Anti-Gay Purge to the Screen, Human Rights Dimensions of COVID-19 Response, US: President Should Set a Human Rights Foreign Policy, Covid-19 Fueling Anti-Asian Racism and Xenophobia Worldwide. International human rights law says the best interests of the child should be a primary consideration in all matters that involve them, including custody issues. Limiting transgender people’s ability to parent – as these proposed amendments to the family code would do – fails not only to uphold the rights of the parents, but also the rights of the children. “The proposed amendments to the family code are intentionally regressive and harmful,” said Graeme Reid, LGBT rights director at Human Rights Watch. Still, lower courts that ignore relevant explanations will probably get reversed. The laws strengthened the autocrat’s executive authority, which included supreme command of the country and the appointment and replacement of government administrations, which were responsible only to the monarch. The most significant of these was made in 2008. The “propaganda” law has been used to target peaceful public protests, individuals’ social media posts, teachers, and Deti-404, a website providing psychosocial – mental health – support for LGBT youth. The new law falls into a pattern of the Russian government increasingly using so-called “traditional values” to trample human rights, particularly for LGBT people, Human Rights Watch said. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Following the concessions Tsar Nicholas promised in his October Manifesto and the promise of shared authority through the creation of the first duma, Nicholas promulgated the fundamental laws in April 1906.These laws prevented these previous concessions to limit the Tsar’s authority in any way declaring the Tsar’s “Supreme Autocratic Power” re-establishing his command over Russia. Russia’s notorious anti-gay “propaganda” law has been used increasingly in recent years as a tool for outright discrimination. They may rely on “the requirements of good faith, reasonableness, and justice since Civil Code and other codes tell specific principles within the code. For more, see William Partlett, Reclassifying Russian Law: Mechanisms, Outcomes, and Solutions for an Overly Politicized Field (reference below). Tsar Nicholas asserted his power and assured the entire population that he had control, it entirely contradicted the Manifesto. Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808. The Fundamental Laws. Individual scholars may be influential by drafting legislation or debating proposed legislation. Judges often reason by analogy, using the general principles of the law the codes to interpret provisions broadly. This would, in turn, prevent such couples from raising children as legally recognized co-parents. This heightened people’s expectations for a new Russia, whereby the Tsar and an elected government could work side by side.