[14], Quarterly of eight, two rows of four, 1 fusilly bendwise azure and argent (Bavaria), 2 or, a lion sable, armed and langued gules (Juliers), 3 gules, an escutcheon argent surmounted by an escarbuncle with rays or (Cleves), 4 argent, a lion gules, queue fourchée in saltire, armed, langued and crowned or (Berg), 5 argent, a lion azure armed, langued and crowned or (Veldenz), 6 or, a fess chequy argent and gules of three rows (de la Marck), 7 argent, three chevrons gules (Ravensberg), 8 argent, a fess sable. The authenticity (or authority) of this grant was doubted by the vassals of Yorkshire, who prevented Otto taking possession of his earldom. [10], "Wittelsbach" redirects here. With the Golden Bull of 1356 the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral dignity, their county became the Electorate of the Palatinate. [25], Such actions infuriated Innocent, and Otto was promptly excommunicated by the pope for this on 18 November 1210. [2], Media related to Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor at Wikimedia Commons, 18th century Wittelsbach Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, Maria Anna Josepha, Margravine of Baden-Baden, Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, Alexander Ferdinand, 3rd Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Marie Casimire Louise de la Grange d'Arquien, "Max Emanuel. Under the mediation of the former Vice-Chancellor Friedrich Karl von Schönborn, the emperor then sought a balance with Vienna, but at the same time negotiated unsuccessfully with France for new military support. The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV acquired Brandenburg (1323), Tyrol (1342), Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut (1345) for his House but he had also released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. [25] So while Otto was in southern Italy, several princes of the empire, including the archbishops of Mainz and Magdeburg,[28] at the instigation of King Philip II of France and with the consent of the pope, elected Frederick King of the Romans at the Diet of Nuremberg in 1211. [28] On 5 December 1212, Frederick was elected king for a second time by a majority of the princes. [17], Charles VII's reign represented the height of the Bavarian Rococo era. From 1583 to 1761, the Bavarian branch of the dynasty provided the Prince-electors and Archbishops of Cologne and many other Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire, namely Liège (1581–1763). A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. The Nymphenburg Palace was completed during his reign. [29], Otto's ambassadors from Milan appeared before the Fourth Lateran Council, pleading his case for his excommunication to be lifted. As a result, the Upper Palatinate had to be ceded to the Bavarian branch in 1623. Most of Bohemia was lost in December 1742 when the Austrians allowed the French under the Duc de Belle-Isle and the Duc de Broglie an honourable capitulation. [9][19], Azure, a cross couped argent, inescutcheon Bavaria.[20]. His six sons succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut in 1347. It was a tight battle, but it was lost when Otto was carried off the field by his wounded and terrified horse, causing his forces to abandon the field. [34] Absolved from his excommunication, he died of disease, at Harzburg castle on 19 May 1218, requesting that he be mortally expiated in atonement of his sins. A full armorial of the Wittelsbach family can be found on the French-language Wikipedia at Armorial of the House of Wittelsbach. [6] He became the foster son of his maternal uncle, King Richard I of England. Philip's army numbered some 15,000, while the allied forces possessed around 25,000 troops, and the armies clashed at the Battle of Bouvines. Deed by Otto IV for Salem Abbey, 14 July 1209, This page was last edited on 13 August 2020, at 03:20. King Frederick the Great of Prussia wrote in 1746: This death robbed me of the emperor, who was my friend.