In 1855 the largest church in St. John's, the Basilica of St. John the Baptist, was completed. [16] The structure of the building was made of sandstone from a quarry on Kelly's Island in Conception Bay. To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canada's online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Curling has gained prominence in St. John's over the years. [9], The earliest record of the location appears as São João on a Portuguese map by Pedro Reinel in 1519. Other museums include the Railway Coastal Museum, a transportation museum in the 104-year-old Newfoundland and Labrador train station building on Water Street. [181] CNA provides career, trade, and university-transfer programs for St. John's residents. ... a Registered Heritage Structure in May 1989 and was also awarded the Southcott Award for heritage restoration by the Newfoundland Historic Trust. It began in 1922, which makes it one of the oldest road races in Canada. The two-story wooden building is constructed around a masonry tower surmounted by a lantern. One of the first examples of a Second Empire style house in St. John's. St. John's is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Dating from the same period and with similar features, McNamara House on Plank Road may be even older than Anderson House, although its exact date of … St. John's had the seventh-highest metropolitan crime index and twelfth-highest metropolitan violent crime index in the country in 2010. [8], The oldest church in St. John's, St. Thomas' Anglican Church, was built in 1835-36 for the British Garrison at St. John's. Pippy Park is also home to the Fluvarium, an environmental education centre which offers a cross section view of Nagle's Hill Brook. The event is important enough in the life of the city that the day of the Regatta (the first Wednesday in August, weather permitting) is a civic holiday – one of the few weather-dependent holidays in the world. Archaeologists say Irish or Scottish monks could be the first builders and residents of the Knap of Howar. [33][34] The base was transferred to Canadian control in 1960 and is now known as CFS St. John's. [144] The city now serves as the capital of Newfoundland and Labrador, therefore the provincial legislature is in the city. Among other things, the harbour is the base for the following Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) ships: St. John's is served by St. John's International Airport (YYT), located 10 minutes northwest of the downtown core. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. The race draws in excess of 2,500 runners. "Then you start having people that are staying in a permanent way.". Places all around the world have different traditions to celebrate the winter solstice. [18][19] A series of expeditions to St. John's by Portuguese from the Azores took place in the early 16th century, and by 1540 French, Spanish and Portuguese ships crossed the Atlantic annually to fish the waters off the Avalon Peninsula. [39][40], St. John's was destroyed by major fires in 1816, 1817, 1819, 1846 and 1892, when each time a large part of the city was destroyed. An all-time high rate of 2.27 was reported in 1993 (four homicides). On 3 August 1527, Rut wrote a letter to King Henry on the findings of his voyage to North America; this was the first known letter sent from North America. [citation needed], The population grew slowly in the 17th century: St. John's was Newfoundland's largest settlement when English naval officers began to take censuses around 1675. You’ll eventually find the oldest city in North America. The park was officially opened in 1891 by Sir Alexander Bannerman, Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland who donated the land to create the park. Children under 15 make up 13.9% of the population while people 65 and over make up 16.5%. The city is also one of the areas of the country most prone to tropical cyclone activity, as it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, where tropical storms (and sometimes hurricanes) travel from the United States. If you've made changes, tell the reviewer what changes you made. Of introduced tree species, sycamore maple is most abundant and Norway maple is common. The monument was once called the “Prehistoric Parthenon” by French writer and politician André Malraux. [180], The College of the North Atlantic (CNA) is the public college of the province and operates two main campuses in the city. While nationally crime decreased by 4% in 2009, the total crime rate in St. John's saw an increase of 4%. The city of St. John's has had a long history, with inhabitation dating to the 16th century onwards. The city is home to 15 AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations. As of 2012, St. John's contains 21 National Historic Sites of Canada. [79] Apart from St. John's, the CMA includes 12 other communities: the city of Mount Pearl and the towns of Conception Bay South, Paradise, Portugal Cove-St. Philip's, Torbay, Logy Bay-Middle Cove-Outer Cove, Pouch Cove, Flatrock, Bay Bulls, Witless Bay, Petty Harbour-Maddox Cove and Bauline. When 1500 English reinforcements arrived in late 1697, they found rubble where the town and fortifications had stood. [131] The 2006 Olympic gold medalist men's curling team, skipped by Brad Gushue, is based in St. John's at the Bally Haly Golf & Curling Club. [87] The city is the centre of the oil and gas industry in Eastern Canada and is one of 19 World Energy Cities. The team left after the 2004–05 season to Toronto due to the desire of its parent team, the Toronto Maple Leafs, to reduce travel costs and to have a tenant for its Ricoh Coliseum.