Explain how Belgium was able to solve her ethnic problems. In Sri Lanka, majoritarianism led to civil war for twenty long years. The passing of this act created a feeling of alienation among the minority group, i.e. (ii) Secondly, it maintains continuity in administration. Explain how power is shared among between different organs of government. Some of these conventions get recognised by law and hence become enforceable while others are followed because these are supported by public opinion, their practical utility and moral commitment in their favour. It provides for independence of judiciary and rule of law. Answer:  3. (ii) Secondly, it is very helpful in meeting emergencies because it can be easily amended. Do you agree with the statement? They struggled for their demands in the following ways. Every democratic Constitution guarantees to the citizens a protection against arbitrary governmental actions. It is the result of slow and gradual process of evolution. (iv) Finally, since the flexible constitution keeps on developing with times, it always continues to be popular and remains up-to-date. The majoritarian concept has increased the strong feelings of alienation among Sri Lankan Tamils after a series of majoritarian measures adopted by the democratically-elected government in Sri Lanka after its independence in 1948 to establish Sinhala Supremacy. It should clearly define the organisation, powers, functions inter-relations of the government of the state and its three organs. It is never written by any assembly. In 1956, an act was passed to recognise Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil. Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]. Discrimination based on religion and language further deprived other communities in Sri Lanka. It is a duly passed and enacted Constitution. In democracy, power is shared among different organs of government, i.e. When the Belgian leaders recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities, they amended their constitution four times in order to accommodate these differences. In a federation, the Constitution lays down the division of powers between the central government and the governments of the federating states/provinces. 7. Question 7. Answer: The government then started adopting and formulating government policies that favoured the Sinhala people in government jobs and for university positions, which made the Sri Lankan Tamils feel ousted. No organ can exercise unlimited power as each organ checks the other. The following are the majoritarian measures adopted by the Sri Lankan government to establish Sinhala supremacy. ADVERTISEMENTS: (2) The Indian Constitution is a federal Constitution with a strong center. An unwritten constitution cannot be produced in evidence. 4. In the year 1956, an act was passed, which established Sinhala as the official language to be used in Sri Lanka disregarding the minority group of Tamils. Sri Lanka and Belgium are both democratic countries yet have a very diverse social set-up. An unwritten constitution cannot be produced in the form of a book. In simple words, we can say a Constitution is the constitutional law of the state. (v) Fifthly, a rigid constitution can be a source of conservativeness. No one, not even the government, can violate the Constitution. Question 17. Power sharing accommodates diverse groups. It lays down the organisation and functions of the government of state. Till 2006 (October) the Constitution has been amended 93 times. It is regarded as the basic will of the sovereign people. Its rules and principles draw binding force from the fact of their being recognised as ancient, historical, time-tested and respected customs and conventions. Question 16. Hence, in horizontal division the concept of checks and balance is followed. Belgium constitution was amended four times before arriving at a final draft to prevent civil strife. Prudential reason: Question 14. CBSE Maths notes, CBSE physics notes, CBSE chemistry notes. In an unwritten constitution, most of the parts are unwritten and are not written in the form of a book. (ii) Each level of government has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation and administration even though they govern the same citizens. Explain the major key features of federalism. Question 13. It involves sharing powers with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects, so that the people would be consulted on how they are to be governed. Under the Belgium model of democracy, power was shared among two ethnic groups. Constitutional amendments are passed in the same manner by which an ordinary law is passed. The Constitution must empower the judiciary with the power to interpret, protect and defend the Constitution and the fundamental rights and freedoms of the people against the possible legislative and executive excesses. Answer: The Constitutions of India, the USA, Germany, Japan, Canada, France, Switzerland and several other states, are written constitutions. The power is shared between different organs of the government in horizontal form of power sharing. Answer:  5. It is found in several historical charters, laws and conventions. Constitutional law enjoys the position of being the supreme and fundamental law of the state. -Woolsey, 2. British Constitution presents a classic example of a most flexible constitution. A written constitution can be amended only in accordance with a settled process of amendment written in the constitution itself. (i) First, the chief demerit of a rigid constitution is that it fails to keep pace with fast changing social environment.