volume 8, Article number: 137 (2018) aldehyde reductase (EC 126.96.36.199) (Barski et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 68:673–679. There was no ITS sequence in GenBank with a perfect match to the present strain. 1997; Kita et al. 3 Biotech 7:358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0998-9, Article By using this website, you agree to our 1995) and Debaryomyces hansenii (Max et al. PubMed PloS One 8(4):e61748. Dates the experiment was performed. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.008, Graf N, Wenzel M, Altenbuchner J (2016) Identification and characterization of the vanillin dehydrogenase YfmT in Bacillus subtilis 3NA. The ‘find by molecular formula function’ in Agilent’s Masshunter Qualitative software was employed to search for the nature of the compound corresponding to the peak, by entering the hypothetical molecular formula. These enzymes often display reducing activity on a wide range of aromatic aldehydes by transforming the aldehyde groups into alcohols (Barski et al. 2003) and cytotoxic to several mammalian cell lines, as reviewed by Bezzera et al. T. asahii strain MP24, biotransform vanillin only to vanillic acid (Ashengroph and Amini 2017) and others only to vanillyl alcohol. Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, 80176, Gävle, Sweden, Jonas Rönnander & Sandra Ann Ingela Wright, Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, 85170, Sundsvall, Sweden, You can also search for this author in The aqueous phase was transferred to a fresh tube and 400 µL of 2-propanol was added. 2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89328-0, Perestelo F, Dalcón MA, de la Fuente G (1989) Production of vanillic acid from vanillin by resting cells of Serratia marcescens. Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood. There were no peaks detected that might have corresponded to vanillic acid. The collected fraction (97% chemical purity by GC) was concentrated under reduced pressure and later resuspended in CDCl3 for 1H NMR and GC–MS analyses. https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.13224, Fache M, Boutevin B, Caillol S (2015) Vanillin, a key-intermediate of biobased polymers. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00196-4, Article Monomeric aldehydes that derive from lignin, e.g. In the present study, the aim was to isolate a microorganism with the potential to biodegrade lignin. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47(2):324–327. CAS Comparisons with previously published 1H NMR spectra of the compound once again indicated that the isolated compound was vanillyl alcohol. The supernatant was removed and the pellet was washed with an equal volume of 70% ethanol. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228686372_Qualitative_methods_for_the_determination_of_lignocellulolytic_enzyme_production_by_tropical_fungi. E The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016:9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9734816, Brebu M, Vasile C (2010) Thermal degradation of lignin—a review. Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Acid-washed glass beads, 0.5 mm diameter, (Precellys24®, Bertin Instruments, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France) were added to the cell suspension, after which 0.5 mL of phenol:chloroform:isoamylalcohol (25:24:1) was added. Furthermore, the m/z peak at 177.0519 could be attributed to [Vanillyl alcohol + Na]+. 1993). In between each analysis, a post-run time of 1 min was used to purge the column. 1995; Shimizu et al. No peak was detected in the negative control. ( ) q r Ğ (2017). Why? AMB Express produce manganese peroxidase (EC 188.8.131.52) activity, which acts on lignin to form other phenolic substances, e.g. 1997; Forrest and Gonzalez 2000). © 2020 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Privacy LC–QTOF–MS run of 0 h and 48 h cultures in triplicate, showing vanillin and the first biodegradation peak detected in a MeOH:H2O gradient elutant system comprising 7 min. 2015). ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight, Adeboye PT, Bettiga M, Olsson L (2014) The chemical nature of phenolic compounds determines their toxicity and induces distinct physiological responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lignocellulose hydrolysates. An LC–MS system with an Agilent 1290 UHPLC coupled with an Agilent 6520 high-resolution accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight system (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA) was employed for qualitative analysis of the biotransformation product. https://doi.org/10.1039/C3EE43081B, Sampaio J (1999) Utilization of low molecular weight aromatic compounds by heterobasidiomycetous yeasts: taxonomic implications. Arch Microbiol 125:189–202. laryngis and Rhodotorula glutinis), as well as Sporobolomyces roseus are able to catalyse a series of lignolytic reactions, as well as assimilating other phenolic substances (Middelhoven and Spaaij 1997; Sampaio 1999). In. Biocatal Biotransform 25(1):109–112. Like other aromatic aldehydes that originate from lignin, vanillin is growth inhibitory to fungi at low concentrations (Adeboye et al. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8209-5, White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee SB, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. For extraction of genomic DNA, TENTS buffer Tris HCl pH 7.5 (1.6 g L−1), EDTA pH 8 (0.29 g L−1), NaCl (5.8 g L−1), 2% Triton X-100 and 1% SDS (Stirling 2003) stored at room temperature, was used. http://fungaldiversity.org/fdp/sfdp/FD_2_17-33.pdf. (2008). 2015; Gallage and Møller 2015; Priefert et al. LiBa was prepared as previously described by Wright et al. The pellet was frozen for 30 min at − 80 °C and then re-suspended in 0.5 mL of TENTS buffer (Stirling 2003). At the time of isolation, the outside temperature was 10–12 °C, and it was raining. 2015). PLoS One 9(2):e89122. This is not as hard as it might seem. Lignin is an abundant polymer in nature, a natural aromatic biomolecule present in lignocellulosic biomass, such as trees, shrubs and grass. It has, however, an additional two bases in its ITS sequence, which are absent in the sequence of the type-strain, C. laryngis CBS 2221T. (2013). https://doi.org/10.1002/yea.3067, Nishida A, Fukuzumi T (1978) Formation of coniferyl alcohol from ferulic acid by the white rot fungus Trametes. For structural identification of the biodegradation product a crude synthesis of vanillyl alcohol from vanillin was performed in analytical scale with a small quantity of vanillin suspended in ether supplemented with an excess of LiAlH4 as described by Zhou et al. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:1387–1398. Explain. CAS https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-005-1933-2, Stentelaire C, Lesage-Meessen L, Delattre M, Haon M, Sigoillot JC, Ceccaldi BC, Asther M (1998) Bypassing of unwanted vanillyl alcohol formation using selective adsorbents to improve vanillin production with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. 2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00149-3, Wang H-Y, Xiao D-F, Zhou C, Wang L-L, Wu L, Lu Y-T, Xiang Q-J, Zhao K, Li X, Ma M-G (2017) YLL056C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity. Seven days after sampling, the wooden chip was washed in 1 mL of sterile tap water, which was further diluted to 100 mL.