Problems, Limitations, and Current Research Context. In: Hyde JS, Essex MJ, eds. Work and pregnancy: Individual and organizational factors influencing organizational commitment, time of maternity leave and return to work. Germany lays claim to the world’s first maternity leave law, enacted in 1883, according to a January 2005 paper in The Economic Review examining parental leave policies in 18 advanced economies. A review of research on paid family leave programs around the world, first published in January 2017 as a National Bureau of Economic Research working paper, finds that paid maternity leave of less than one year increased employment rates for mothers after they gave birth while a leave of longer than one year can hurt women’s earnings and employment and career advancement. The research grant will be supplemented by the value of the additional net cost and grant extended by the period of leave taken. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.281425. Similarly, there is a need for more research into workplace supports that may make returning to work less stressful and more family-friendly. But it doesn't provide leave for these parents to care for their infants. Natl. Paid leave may also lead to higher wages for children by the time they reach age 30. Med. Trappe, H. High-wage workers are much more likely to have paid family leave: 34% of the highest 10% of earners have access, compared to 6% among the lowest 10% of earners. Christopher Ruhm, professor of public policy and economics, University of Virginia. Length of maternity leave and quality of mother-infant interactions. Child Youth Fam. Other longitudinal research on early maternal employment and the quality of child care confirm that both factors are important within a range of early cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Paid parental leave and family wellbeing in the sustainable development era. Turning Chutes into Ladders for Women Faculty: A Review and Roadmap for Equity in Academia. Harvey E. Short-term and long-term effects of early parental employment on children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Vandell DL, Ramanan J. In: Hyde JS, Essex MJ, eds. Full text views reflects the number of PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. Belsky J, Eggebeen D. Early and extensive maternal employment and young children’s socioemotional development: Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. 2018. doi: 10.1016/S0378-3782(02)00075-0. Parents had a greater likelihood of feeling like they were coping well with day-to-day parenting demands after the state’s paid family leave law passed, according to a July 2019 study in the Journal of Health Economics. Are family-supportive’ employer policies relevant to men? Paid family leave programs typically offer partial — not complete — replacement of wages up to a maximum weekly payout. Antecol, Heather Notably, that paper associates better outcomes for infants with paid leave, not unpaid leave. To date, this research (begun in 1991) has confirmed the importance of responsive and stimulating parenting. Paid Maternity Leave in the United States: Associations with Maternal and Infant Health. Both leave and benefit provisions are important aspects of these policies. We'll cover these costs if you: take leave for a month or more; are the grantholder and the sole lead of the research, even if Wellcome doesn’t fund your salary. Ramping up paid maternity leave and high-quality child care would probably help narrow the gap. and Inadequate income replacement appears to be a major constraint on the duration of leave new mothers take, as evidenced in the US. Emerging Gender Regimes and Policies for Gender Equality in a Wider Europe, State Action on Women's Rights Around the World. Until recently, much of the research in this area has focussed primarily on use patterns and the economic consequences of leave policies. Pollmann-Schult, M. 2018 Sep;96(3):434-471. doi: 10.1111/1468-0009.12340. Research has confirmed that women are more likely to stop breastfeeding during the month they return to work. 2019. 2015;6:204–229. We’re focusing on proposals that have a reasonable chance of becoming policy, and for us that means at least 3 of the 5 top-polling candidates say they intend to tackle the issue. In: Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Peters RDeV, eds. The District of Columbia, Washington state and Massachusetts are phasing in paid family leave programs over the next several years. Much less is known about leave taking among fathers. Keywords: Even working women who have partners often have to do the most work at home. Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle doi: 10.1073/pnas.1202203109. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Stay-at-home parents have a hard time reentering the workforce after spending time away. Read More. Consequences of family policies on childbearing behavior: effects or artifacts? Breast milk contains ingredients in concentrations that change over the course of the day. for this article. COLES, LAETITIA Whatever the eventual impact on women's candidacies post-pandemic, COVID-19 has the potential to shock the system, upending or reinforcing existing gender imbalances in political power. The gist: “For policy makers contemplating which policies might be most effective at reducing pay inequities, the answer is clear: Policies that serve to keep women attached to the labor market, through moderate-length leaves, publicly funded childcare, lower marginal tax rates on second earner income, as well as support for father involvement after a birth, appear most effective at reducing the motherhood penalty.”. Others15 have reflected on the importance having time to establish regular biological rhythms and reciprocal interaction patterns between mothers and infants, through which both became attuned to and attached to each other. Following two parental leave reforms in West Germany, this research explores how child care and housework time changed among couples who have just had a child. As individual US states consider enacting parental leave policies, there is a significant opportunity to decrease health inequities and build a healthier American population. South Africa lacks a clear definition of disability – and its limited view of who should be regarded as having a disability in the labour market is at odds with international practice. ZADOROZNYJ, MARIA Schober, Pia Sophia Dominant factors in decisions around leave taking appear to be both financial and employment-related. Among other things, researchers have noted that a complex set of factors that must be considered when interpreting how decisions about the duration of leave and alternative child care arrangements are made. What determines the duration of leave for mothers? Acad. There are roughly 10 times more paid leave claims each year in California for caring for a new child than for caring for a sick loved one, according to a May 2018 paper from the American Economic Association’s Papers and Proceedings. Stearns, Jenna 2018. In Canada, research conducted between 1993 and 1996 revealed that self-employed women who were not eligible for maternity and parental leave and benefits tended to return to work within one month after childbirth, while other new mothers averaged 6.4 months, a leave duration that closely corresponded to the then available period of government-provided maternity and parental leave benefits.12 In addition to existing policy provisions, mothers were affected by specific employment factors, including the nature of their occupation and responsibilities, the availability of employer‑provided benefits and return-to-work options, and their perceptions of how leave‑taking would affect their job security and career advancement. LABRECQUE, JEREMY A. 2018. For example, Clark and colleagues16 found that mothers who were more depressed or who thought their infant had a difficult temperament and who took shorter leaves were less likely to be positive, sensitive and responsive with their infants. Nitsche, Natalie International policies toward parental leave and child care. A project of Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center and the Carnegie-Knight Initiative, Journalist’s Resource curates, summarizes and contextualizes high-quality research on newsy public policy topics. Richardson DM, Steeves-Reece A, Martin A, Hurtado DA, Dumet LM, Goodman JM. (See reference 9for a critical review of the methodological difficulties regarding most of these studies. Maria Karanika-Murray, Nottingham Trent University and Cary Cooper, University of Manchester, Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant, Queen's University, Ontario, Kate Weisshaar, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Darby Saxbe, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, University of California, Merced, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay, Université TÉLUQ, Gemma Mitchell, University of East Anglia, Carla Pascoe Leahy, University of Melbourne, Darby Saxbe, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Joya Misra, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Anri Botes, North-West University and Laetitia Fourie, University of the Free State, Professorial Fellow, Jumbunna IHL, University of Technology Sydney, Lecturer in Mercantile Law, University of the Free State, Senior Lecturer in Labour Law, North-West University, Assistant Professor of Psychology, USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Professor of Sociology & Public Policy, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Associate Dean for Research and Faculty Affairs; Professor of Law and Ira C. Batman Faculty Fellow, Indiana University, Professor of Business Statistics, Melbourne Business School, University of Melbourne, Emeritus Professor University of South Australia, University of South Australia, Professor of Politics and Policy, Deakin University, Professor of Organisational Psychology and Health, University of Manchester, Associate Professor Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Professeure à l'Université TELUQ, Université du Québec, directrice de l'ARUC sur la gestion des âges et des temps sociaux et de la Chaire de recherche du Canada sur l'économie du savoir, Université TÉLUQ, Australian Research Council DECRA Fellow, University of Melbourne. This document is intended as a critical review of the present evidence for the association between paid parental leave and population health. Society for Research in Child Development. California’s paid family leave program took effect in 2004. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov. Maternity and parental leave policies date back more than 100 years and are now established policy instruments in over 120 nations. Work and Occupations, November 2015. 2016. Alterations in maternal and paternal labour market participation, wages and leave taking accounted for most of the observed variations in paternal child care except for eighteen to thirteen months after the 2007 reform. After paid family leave was enacted, kids ages 5 to 10 in California were less likely to be overweight or have hearing problems or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, suggests another JPAM paper from July 2017. Parental leave costs cannot be recovered from the European Commission. Nurs Outlook. How does a longer or shorter period of leave affect maternal physical and mental health, infant health, and the quality of parent–child relationships? Lost in the political debate about subsidising child care is the fact that universal free preschool care has been abandoned as a goal of good social policy. [(accessed on 13 April 2016)]; Available online: Moses H., Hamilton M., Matheson D.H.M., Ray Dorsey E., George B.P., David S., Yoshimura S. The Anatomy of Health Care in the United States. The U.S. has one of the highest infant mortality rates among advanced economies.